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Though statistics remain unclear, families have sold their daughters simply to boost their purchasing power (20).Whatever the impetus, once children have become prostitutes, they may work “independently” (perhaps under their parents’ direction) or for brothels, hotels, and other venues that may staff adult prostitutes as well (O’Connell Davidson, 20).This economic devastation may be compounded by cultural expectations that daughters will “take significant responsibility for their [families’] economic wellbeing,” as Giron reports for Guatemala (p. Abuse at home is another factor (Roby, 209; Andrews, 201), for as Andrews notes, this abuse may push children to the streets, where prostitution becomes one of few viable means of procuring income. Many youngsters do become prostitutes so that they or their families will be able to survive, yet prostitution sometimes emerges as a result of poverty.61), or that children must stoop to whatever means necessary to repay their parents for having conceived and raised them, as Bales finds in Thailand (20). Giron, for example, notes that as a result of international pressures, factories in Bangladesh at one point released their child labourers – many of whom, thereafter living “in the streets,” turned to prostitution (p. Alternatively, parents may sell their children for cash (Roby, 208); Andrews claims that even one daughter’s profits from prostitution can allow a whole family, otherwise struggling, to survive (p. Bales explains that modern luxuries (televisions, refrigerators, rice cookers, air conditioners, et cetera) have proven so alluring to the northern Thai that many believe their lives will prove unsatisfactory without these technological wonders.Abuse or enslavement may occur (Bales, 2004), and hazards can be severe.Children, for example, are particularly vulnerable to HIV/AIDS.
Prostitution, in her words, is “as vital to white supremacy and capitalism [in terms of class stratification] as it is to patriarchy” (p. Of particular relevance are her arguments regarding prostitution as relates to racialized ‘space’; Razack contends that women in certain (poor) spaces are often assumed to be prostitutes, as are ‘racialized’ women in more affluent areas (p. The spaces in which prostitution flourishes become ‘anomalous zones,’ where visitors flout the norms and mores that bind them within their day-to-day lives.
In so doing, they construct the anomalous zones’ inhabitants (prostitutes) as permanently debased, while the customers, rooted in zones of “respectability,” remind themselves of their alleged superiority – in terms of gender, class, and race (p. Furthermore, visitors feel little obligation to about the well-being of the anomalous zones’ “degenerate” inhabitants: “There are simply designated bodies and spaces where so[-]called contractual violence can happen with impunity” (p. Particularly as relates to international sex tourism, the hiring of prostitutes constitutes a ‘sexual imperialism’ (p. Thus, even in today’s interconnected world, foreign, especially Southern, spaces remain ‘anomalous zones.’ In racist frameworks, these foreign zones may appear home to the “inferior,” or the “dirty,” yet even when Northern tourists refrain from reviling their Southern hosts, the foreign may remain crystallized as ‘other’ within tourists’ minds.
Tourists may, as sociologist Zygmunt Bauman has remarked, view foreign culture as a product, something to dabble with, to taste, but not to analyze, empathize with, or internalize: Or you watch the natives as a spectacle – selling their ‘otherness’ to tourists, making their living by selling their culture as spectacle.
As a United Nations Special Rapporteur has noted, “children are physically weaker, less experienced and therefore less empowered to negotiate the terms of the abuse, such as an insistence on the use of a condom or refusal to be subjected to particularly violent and physically damaging sexual activity” (quoted in Giron, 20).
Girls also are at greater risk because their vaginal mucous membranes may not be fully developed (Bales, 20).
we rarely see ordinary, middle-aged men and women flirting with homeless teenagers who sit on the pavements begging for spare change, or inviting them out to dinner and then back home to bed.” (O’Connell Davidson, 20) Globalization has undoubtedly spurred the development of the child sex tourism industry.