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Historically, "population" has been an indispensable and ostensibly unambiguous concept – "population" encompasses the inhabitants of a specific territory at a particular moment in time and thus offers empirical information on the condition of an entity, be it political, cultural or otherwise defined. Do the people who are being counted populate a nation-state, an overseas colony or Europe as whole?Are all the individuals who live in the selected territory being counted?During this period of renewed population growth, the first censuses took place in the 17th and in particular in the 18th century.The "first modern census" is considered to be the one conducted in 1665 in French In the aftermath of the Reformation, there were also efforts to register the confessional affiliations of the inhabitants of a region, for example, the "Untertanen-Verzeichnis nach dem Glauben" (Register of Subjects by Religion) conducted in 1651 in the This placed the statistical recording of the population on a permanent institutional footing.Are there differences in the way individual population groups are evaluated? Are the people counted, estimated, visited or written to?What assumptions regarding the composition of the population are contained in the census and how do the results affect population policies?
Secondly, there is the register of baptisms and deaths, which were maintained by church parishes for their respective territories and the principle of which survives in the recording of vital statistics by states.
Finally, the article will explore the question of whether it is possible to write a genuinely European history of the idea of "population".
Our description of the historical development of populations in Europe must be preceded by some preliminary considerations.
The concept of a "European population" must thus be used with great care.
However, perhaps the biggest obstacle to a genuinely European perspective on "population" is that population figures have only been compiled systematically for a relatively short period and at the national level.
In the context of rapid industrialization and urbanization, internal migration caused the population density within individual nations and regions to change dramatically within a short space of time.